Rice Cultivation


Methods of Rice Cultivation Seeds used in India Crop Statistics

    Methods of Rice Cultivation in India

    ploughing rice fields with bullockcart

  • Dry Upland Cultivation
  • The dry and semi-dry systems of cultivation are mainly confined to tracts which depend on rains and do not have supplementary irrigation facilities.

    The fields are ploughed and harrowed in summer for achieving the required-tilth. Farmyard manure is uniformly distributed 2-3 weeks before sowing. The seed is sown directly with the onset of the monsoon showers, either by

    1. Broadcasting the seed
    2. Sowing the seed behind the plough or drilling
    sowing rice in fields
    Line-sowing is preferable, as it ensures an adequate stand establishment and facilitates easy weeding and inter culture. The reduced seed-rate requirement is another advantage. The row spacing may be suitably adjusted from 20 to 25 cm. Under the semi-dry system, the rain-water is impounded when the crop is about 1�-2 months old and thereafter it is converted into a wetland crop.

    By that time, major operations, such as weeding, inter culturing and fertilizer application might have been completed. 'Beushening' still prevalent in Orissa and Madhya Pradesh under this system helps to control weeds and adjust population. The latest thinking is to promote line-sowing using a higher seed-rate so as to have a uniformly higher population density for effective competition from weeds and to use effective methods of inter culture to solve the weed problem.
  • Wetland Cultivation
  • The wet system is practiced in areas with assured and adequate supply of water, either by way of rainfall or by irrigation.

    In Wetland Cultivation, the distinguishing factors are :

    1. Transplanting in puddled fields
    2. Broadcasting sprouted seeds in puddled fields

    Under Wetland Cultivation, the land is ploughed thoroughly and puddled with 3-5 cm of standing water in the field. The optimum depth of puddling is found to be around 10 cm in the clay and clay-loam types of soils. The primary objective is to obtain a soft seedbed for the seedlings to establish themselves faster, to minimize the leaching losses of nutrients and thereby increase the availability of plant nutrients by achieving a reduced soil conditions which facilitates a better availability of nutrient elements, to incorporate the weeds and stubble into the soil and to minimize the weed problem. Puddling can be done with ploughs, tillers or tractors, depending upon their availability and soil conditions. The land is leveled after puddling to facilitate a uniform distribution of water and fertilizers.

    Types of rice seed grown in India


    Basmati is a variety of long grain rice grown in India notable for its fragrance and delicate, nuanced flavour. Its name means "the fragrant one" but it can also mean "the soft rice". India is the largest cultivator, consumer and exporter of this rice, it is primarily grown through paddy field farming in the Punjab region.

    The grains of basmati rice are longer than most other types of rice. Cooked grains of Basmati rice are characteristically free flowing rather than sticky, unlike most other kinds of long-grain rice. Cooked basmati rice can be uniquely identified by its fragrance. In addition to normal (white) Basmati rice, brown basmati is available, although uncommon. Basmati rice sells at a higher price than other varieties


    Ambemohar is a rice variant grown on the hills of Western Maharashtra in India. The short cooked grains have a tendency to break easily and stick together. It is popular in Maharashtra due to its flavor and strong aroma reminiscent of mango blossoms, which is noticeable when the rice is cooked. It is also similar to the Surti kolam variety from Gujarat, which is preferred there due to its prepared softness and easy chewability.

    Dubraj rice

    Dubraj is a variety of rice. It is an aromatic short to medium grain rice. It is a traditional Indian cultivar with intermediate amylose and gelatinization temperature. It is most common in Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh.

    Joha rice

    Joha is a variety of rice grown in India, notable for its aroma, delicate and excellent taste. Assam is the largest cultivator of this rice, it is primarily grown through paddy field farming.

    Rosematta rice

    Kerala Matta rice (also known as Rosematta rice, Palakkadan Matta rice, Kerala Red rice, or Red parboiled rice) is an indigenous variety of rice grown in Palakkad District of Kerala.It is different from brown rice. It is popular in Kerala and Sri Lanka where it is used on a regular basis for idlies, appams and plain rice. The robust, earthy flavor of Red Matta makes it an enticing companion to lamb, beef or game meats.

    Navara rice

    Navara rice is one of the many types of rice found in India, and is a unique grain plant in the Oryza group. There seems to have been about a hundred varieties of rice but only about 20 types are said to be existing. Navara is one of the 20. It is said to have some kind of mineral and chemical composition which rejuvenates the muscles and tissues. It seems to have been an essential part of Ayurvedic treatment in the 15th century. Specifically, it is used in Panchakarma treatment. It is a muscle strengthening variety of rice and is used in a special treatment for neuromuscular disorders such as arthritis, rheumatism, back ache and other age related problems. Navara is also reported to provide benefits in the curing circulatory, respiratory, digestive and nervous system ailments. Molecular studies conducted by a team of scientists from the Kerala Agricultural University (KAU) indicated the presence of a gene fragment encoding a protein which is reported to have anti-carcinogenic (chemo-preventive) property, especially against breast cancer. This protein, christened Bowman-Birk Trypsin Inhibitor protein, is also known to possess anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic properties in animals and is reported to be capable of imparting resistance to fungal pathogens and pests in crops. The KAU scientists pointed out that traditionally Navara was used in the ayurveda system of medicine for treatment of neurological disorders, arthritis and emaciation of limbs. The rice is often powdered and then mixed with milk and taken in the form of a cereal. Navara also has religious significance and is sometimes used in temples for ceremonies.


    Molakolukulu is a variety of rice cultivated in Andhra Pradesh in India. This variety is often called nellore molakolukulu, perhaps due to its origin in the Nellore region of Andhra Pradesh.

    Patna rice

    Patna rice, a variety of the species Oryza sativa, and one of the varieties of long-grain white rice, is extensively cultivated in the Indo-gangetic plains, in and around Patna, capital of Bihar state, India. Patna rice is known for its elongated kernel with grain length greater than 6 mm, and has been used as staple food by the local people for thousands of years. Sometimes, Patna rice is also called Parimal rice locally. This mildly flavoured rice comes from the Bihar region of the Ganges plains. It has a robust, long and narrow, opaque grain that keeps its shape well for curries. Basmati rice is closely related to the Patna rice but has a stronger aroma. Patna rice is the most esteemed in UK and USA and is the highest priced rice in the grocery stores.

    The Mughal chronicler Abul Fazal who collected the various types of rice grown in the Gangetic belt has described the rice cultivated in Patna in glowing terms. William Fullarton of Skeldon UK made his fortune by dealing in Patna rice. He chose to name the hamlet of the coal mining workers he built in East Ayrshire, Scotland as Patna.

    As at one time, most of the rice sold in Europe came from this region, Patna rice is also sometimes loosely used to mean any long grain aromatic rice.

    Another example of long-grain rice is American long-grain rice which include Carolina rice. It is believed that Patna rice was the first type of rice cultivated in America [1], and acquired the name Carolina rice. The seeds of Patna rice were taken to America, grown in Carolina and exported to Britain before the American Civil War. Thus the term Carolina rice is also sometimes used to denote this variety of rice.

    Sona Masuri

    Sona Masuri (also, Sona Masoori, Samba Masuri, BPT 5204, HMT, or Jeela karra masuri) is a medium-grain rice grown largely in the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. In Telugu, Sona Masuri rice is called Bangaru Theegalu (meaning Golden Ivy). It is lightweight and aromatic. This premium variety of rice is mainly exported to USA, Canada, Europe, Australia, Singapore, Malaysia, and Middle East countries like Saudi, UAE, and Qatar. In Andhra Pradesh, it is mainly cultivated in Guntur, Kurnool, Mahaboobnagar, Nizamabad, Nellore, Warangal and West Godavari Districts. In Karnataka, it is mainly cultivated in Raichur, Koppal and Bellary districts.

    Improved Samba Mahsuri

    Improved Samba Mahsuri (RP Bio-226) is the latest high yielding fine grain variety released by Directorate of Rice Research (DRR), Hyderabad. This variety was developed by deploying Marker-assisted selection and possesses three major bacterial blight resistance genes Xa21, xa13 and xa5. It has exhibited high level of resistance to bacterial blight across the country in multi-location trials of All India Coordinated Rice Improved Project (AICRIP). Grown in :Andhra Pradesh, Chattisgarh, Orissa, Jharkhand, Bihar, Gujarat and Maharashtra

    Few other varites:

    Aizon Rice
    Champaa Rice
    Clearfield Rice
    Hasan serai
    Gobindo Bhog [West Bengal]
    HMT Rice
    Thimmasamundaram Mollakolukulu
    Jay Shrirama Rice
    Raja Hansa rice
    Pusa Rice
    74 count
    Idly Rice - Short grain
    Ranjit Rice
    Katta sambar
    Poreiton chakhau - aromatic dark red rice from Manipur
    Rice varieties of Karnataka- Jaya, Thanu, Tunga, IR-30864, BR-2655 (Produced in SFPP Project, VC Farm, Mandya, Karnataka, India)
    Traditional Kerala rice varieties - Chitteni,Aryan, Thavalakkannan,Vattan, Wayanad Kayamma,Palakkad Matta
    Assamese rice varieties - Bora, Malbhog, Manuhar, Bahadur, Kushal, Maniram IR-8, etc.
    Tamilnadu rice varieties- IR-20,IR-50,Aduthurai(ADT)-36,Ambai-16, BPT 5204, ADT 43, improved white ponni, Co-43 etc.,
    Seela Rice
    Basmati tukda
    Surti kolam, kolam (Varieties of Gujrat)
    Kalinga III

    Rice Production and Consumption statistics

    Market YearDomestic Consumption(in 1000 MT)Consumption Growth RateProduction(in 1000 MT)Production Growth Rate
    1999826501.74 %896804.18 %
    200075960-8.09 %84980-5.24 %
    20018761115.34 %933409.84 %
    200279860-8.85 %71820-23.06 %
    2003856307.23 %8853023.27 %
    200480861-5.57 %83130-6.10 %
    2005850885.23 %9179010.42 %
    2006867001.89 %933501.70 %
    2007904664.34 %966903.58 %
    2008910900.69 %991802.58 %
    200985508-6.13 %89090-10.17 %
    2010902065.49 %959807.73 %
    2011939004.10 %1034007.73 %
    2012960002.24 %100000-3.29 %

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