Wheat is called gahama or gaham in Oriya , goom or gom in Bengali , ghuN ( no chhodd athvaa daanno ) in gujrati , gehun in Hindi , goodi or goodhi in Kannada , kootumai in Tamil , goodhumlu in Telugu , ghuu or dhaany in Marathi , n. blé in Freanch , n. Weizen in German , s. trigo in Portuguese , s. trigo or maíz in Spanish
The wheat crop requires a well pulverized, but compact seed bed. After Kharif harvesting, land is ploughed and large soil lumps are softened by harrow or any other suitable tiller. The land should be properly leveled for uniform irrigation. In case of mild slopes, contour cultivation practices should be resorted. One to three ploughing with an interval of 2-3 weeks are essential. Under irrigated conditions the land is provided with pre-sowing irrigation.
The crop prior to wheat (in kharif) should be provided with sufficient manure (1-2 ton compost), 100 kg rock-phosphate and 2 kg PSB per acre. After the harvest of kharif crop, collect crop residue and keep on bunds in the form of heaps. Ensure that one third of the total residue belong to the legume crops. Drench the residue heap with cow dung - cow urine slurry (50 lit/ton) and Trichoderma viridi (1 kg per ton) culture. 8-10 quintal of FYM/ compost or 5-10 quintal of vermicompost with 2.0 kg PSB should be mixed with the soil at the time of sowing. If the soil is acidic then 500 kg of lime should also be mixed with the compost. Addition of 200-300 kg of concentrated manure (dry chicken manure and crushed oil cakes 1: 1 or any other type) and 150 - 200 kg Neem/ Pongam/ castor/ ground nut cakes by drilling below the seeds will add to the productivity. In areas where termite problem is common addition of Neem leaf/seed manure at 300 kg/acre along with concentrated manure will be beneficial. To increase the availability of phosphorus egg shell manure or BD compost can also be used.
Seeds are sown 5- 7.5 cm deep, preferably by drilling or behind the plough. Quantity of seed and spacing varies, depending upon the irrigation conditions and time of sowing, as follows: Rainfed - sown during mid of October to end of October, 75 - 100 kg/ha Irrigated - sown during 15 November to 05 December 100 kg/ha Irrigated late - Sown during 05 December to end of December, 125 kg/ha Row to row distance under rainfed and irrigated conditions should be maintained at 22.5 cm. In case of late sowing, row to row distance can be reduced to 15-18 cm. In Maharashtra the tool used for sowing is called -Pabhar-. It has three ploughs equipped with iron tips and holes for seeds to pass. The distance between them is 22 cm. The weight of the -Pabhar- is such that the tip of the same penetrates up to 5 to 7.5 cm in the soil. Sowing should be done in wet soil, preferably in north-south direction to harvest maximum sunlight and to utilize maximum amount of carbon dioxide emitted by the plant in the night. Under rainfed conditions some farmers sow only 50-70 kg of wheat seeds by broadcasting. Lower plant population and increased interspaces induce more number of shoots and more yield. To maintain biodiversity, 3 kg of maize seeds and 500gm of mustard seeds can be mixed with 100 kg wheat seeds at the time of sowing. Maize plants act as bird perches and attract predatory birds and insects. Mixed cropping of wheat with mustard, Rajgira and Rajma have also been found to be effective and productive. One row of Rajma can be taken on raised bunds after every 8-12 rows of wheat with random mustard plants in each wheat row. Alternatively one row of mustard can be taken after 16 rows of wheat with random plants of Rajgira in wheat rows. Some maize plants either at random or along the boundary will be useful.
24-48 hrs after sowing, divide the fields in small plots by raising small bunds, as per the slope. Spread the partly decomposed crop residue of the kharif crop (lying on the bunds) over entire field to act as mulch. Mulching is highly beneficial in nutrient supply and water conservation. It also reduces weed growth.
Application of required quantity of organic manures and mulching of crop residue not only ensure ready availability of nutrients but also encourage intense microbial activity. High availability of crop biomass also encourages the growth of earthworms. Availability of nutrients is ensured by this organic manure-crop biomass - microbial population complex. To hasten microbial population and quick release of different nutrients timely application of Sanjeevak or Amrutpani or Jeevamrut is essential. Out of these three, Jeevamrut is most effective. 500 lit Jeevamrut is to be applied per ha in the soil along with first four irrigations, i.e. after 21, 42, 60 and 75 days of sowing. For appropriate growth of the crop use vermiwash and Gomutra as foliar spray at an interval of 7-10 days from 20 days onward till grain formation stage. Dilute 1lit of vermiwash and 1lit of Gomutra in about 200 lit water for spray over one acre.
Total water requirement of the wheat crop is 450-650 mm, which need to be provided over first 100 days of crop growth uniformly. Flood irrigation with canal or bore well water is a common practice. A minimum of five to six irrigations are necessary for optimum productivity. Under assured irrigated conditions irrigation is to be provided at an interval of about 10-20 days, starting from 21, 42, 60, 75, 90 and 100 days of sowing. Under rainfed and limited water supply conditions, if only 1 irrigation is available, then provide at 42 days of sowing. If 2 irrigation cycles are available, then provide at 21 and 65 days of sowing and if three irrigations are available then provide at 21, 42 and 65 days of sowing.
Important insects pests of wheat are termite, Gujhia weevil, cutworms, armyworm, thrips, aphids, shoot fly and stem borer. Among diseases, black, yellow and brown rust, loose smut, kernel bunt, leaf blight and powdery mildew are common.
Harvesting is to be done when the ears are sufficiently dry and grains have approximately 15% moisture. Except some parts of Punjab and Haryana, wheat is harvested manually and threshed by wheat threshers. In some area bullocks are also used for threshing. Sometimes cutter wheels are also used for crushing wheat plants and separating wheat from chaff. In some parts of Punjab and Haryana combined harvester does all these operations in one go. But in this process recovery of grain is less and the straw is spread over the field. About 40-50 quintals of wheat is produced organically per ha, equal to the chemical method, but on a continued basis while the chemical method has declining yield.
Mix 0.5 % strong pepper powder in the wheat to protect it from the beetles. Cow dung or 2 % Neem powder protects the stored wheat from grubs and other pests.
A wide variety of wheat is grown in today's times. However, the three principal types of wheat that are produced in India comprise of:
Hard Red Winter wheat: It produces good quality flour used primarily in making bread, burgers, biscuits, etc. It has a high protein content of 10-14%, because of which it has a high amount of gluten in it Soft wheat: Products like cakes, doughnuts, cookies, pastries, etc. are best made with soft wheat as it does not require the same amount of leavening as yeast bread. It contains about 6-10% protein in it Durum: Durum has a very hard texture and has a high protein and gluten content in it. It contains semolina, a course, golden amber product, which, when mixed with water, forms a dough. It's this dough that is largely used in making pasta products like noodles, spaghetti, etc. White wheat: It has a soft texture and is used in making cereals, cakes, biscuits, etc.
|Northern Hills Zone (NHZ)|
|VL-832,VL-804, HS-365, HS-240||Irrigated/Rainfed, Medium Fertility, Timely Sown|
|VL-829,HS-277||Rainfed, Medium Fertility, Early Sown|
|HS-375(Himgiri),HS-207, HS-295, HS-420 (Shivalik)||Irrigated/Rainfed, Medium Fertility, Late Sown|
|HS375 (Himgiri), HPW42||Very High Altitude|
|Noth Western Plains Zone (NWPZ)|
|HD2687,WH-147, WH-542, PBW-343, WH-896(d), PDW-233(d), UP-2338, PBW-502, Shresth (HD 2687), Aditya (HD 2781)||Irrigated, High Fertility,Timely Sown|
|PBW-435, UP-2425, PBW-373, Raj-3765||Irrigated, Medium Fertility, Late Sown|
|North Eastern Plain Zone (NEPZ)|
|PBW-443, PBW-502, HD-2733, K-9107, HD-2824(Poorva), HUW-468, NW-1012, HUW-468, HP-1731, Poorva (HD 2824)||Irrigated,High Fertility,Timely Sown|
|Raj-3765, HD-2643, NW-1014, NW-2036, HUW-234, HW-2045, HP-1744, DBW-14||Irrigated, Medium Fertility, Late Sown|
|HDR77, K8027, K8962||Rainfed, Low Fertility, Late Sown||HD-2888||Rainfed, Timely Sown|
|Central Zone (CZ)|
|DL-803-3, GW-273, GW-190, Lok-1, Raj-1555, HI-8498(d), HI-8381(d)||Irrigated, High Fertility, Timely Sown|
|DL-788-2, GW-173, NI-5439, MP-4010, GW-322, Urja (HD 2864)||Irrigated, Medium Fertility, Late Sown|
|C-306, Sujata, HW-2004, HI-1500, HD-4672(d), JWS-17||Rainfed, Low Fertility, Timely Sown|
|Peninsular Zone (PZ)|
|DWR-195, HD-2189,DWR-1006(d), MACS-2846(d),
DWR-2001(di), Raj-4037, DDK-1009(di)
|Irrigated,High Fertility,Timely Sown|
|HUW-510, NIAW-34, HD-2501, HI-1977,Pusa Tripti (HD-2833)||Irrigated, Medium Fertility, Late Sown|
|A9-30-1, K-9644,NIAW-15(d), HD-2380||Rainfed, Low Fertility,Timely Sown|
|Southern Hills Zone (SHZ)|
|HW-2044, HW-1085, NP-200(di), HW-741||Rainfed, Low Fertility, Timely Sown|
|HUW-318, HW-741, HW-517, NP-200(di), HW-1085||Irrigated, High Fertility, Timely Sown|
|National Capital Region Delhi (NCR)|
|HD-2851(Pusa Visesh), HD-4713(i)(d)||Irrigated, Timely Sown|
|Pusa Gold (WR-544)||Irrigated,Late Sown|
Latest Release of wheat varieties
|HD-2894 (2008)||High yielding variety for NCR Delhi, with an average yield of 5.2 t/ha having a protein content of 12.9%, high gluten score, and good chapati making. It is developed by IARI New Delhi|
|HD-4713 (durum) (2008)||High yielding durum variety for NCR Delhi, with an average yield of 4.71 t/ha having a protein content of 5.15%. It is resistant to brown rust under both natural and artificial conditions and is suitable for pasta products.|
|Pusa Gold (WR-544)(2005)||for late sown, irrigated conditions of Delhi region, released by IARI New Delhi.|
|Pusa Visesh (HD-2851) (2005) & HD-4713(d)(i) (2006)||for timely sown, irrigated conditions of Delhi region, released by IARI New Delhi|
|Poorva (HD 2824) (2005)||timly sown irrigated for NEPZ region, released by IARI New Delhi|
|HD-2888 (2006)||timly sown, Rainfed conditions for NEPZ region, released by IARI New Delhi|
|Shresth (HD 2687)(2005), Aditya (HD 2781)(2005)||timly sown, irrigated conditions of NWPZ region, released by IARI New Delhi
|Pusa Tripti (HD-2833)(2006)|| Late sown & Irrigated conditions of PZ, released by IARI New Delhi
|Urja (HD 2864)||for late sown, irrigated conditions for CZ region, released by IARI New Delhi
|Amrta (HI 1500)||for timely sown unirrigated for central India, released by IARI Indore|
|Swarna (HI 1479)||for timely sown irrigated condition for central India, released by IARI Indore
|PBW 502||timly sown, irrigated conditions of NWPZ credited with Punjab Agriculture Univ.
|DBW 14||late sown,irrigated conditions of NEPZ credited with Directorate of Wheat Research
|Market Year||Domestic Consumption (in 1000 MT)||Consumption Growth Rate||Production(in 1000 MT)||Production Growth Rate|
|1999||68793||7.98 %||70780||6.68 %|
|2000||66821||-2.87 %||76369||7.90 %|
|2001||65125||-2.54 %||69680||-8.76 %|
|2002||75254||15.55 %||72770||4.43 %|
|2003||68918||-8.42 %||65760||-9.63 %|
|2004||72838||5.69 %||72150||9.72 %|
|2005||69980||-3.92 %||68640||-4.86 %|
|2006||73477||5.00 %||69350||1.03 %|
|2007||76423||4.01 %||75810||9.32 %|
|2008||70924||-7.20 %||78570||3.64 %|
|2009||78150||10.19 %||80680||2.69 %|
|2010||81760||4.62 %||80800||0.15 %|
|2011||81555||-0.25 %||86870||7.51 %|